Fine chemical industry is the general name of producing fine chemical industry. It has characteristics, such as many varieties, fast update, small output, intermittent production mode, functional or final use, compound products, product performance determined by formula, high product quality, strong marketability, selling under trade name, high technology intensive, continuous technology development and research on application technology of new products, valued technical service, low equipment investment and high value added rate.
There are many kinds of fine chemicals, such as inorganic compounds, organic compounds, polymers and their complexes. Common characteristics of production technology are as follows:
① With many varieties and fast updating, it is necessary to carry out product technology development and application development continuously, so R&D expenditure is very high. For example, research expenditure of medicine often account for 8% ~ 10% of drug sales. This leads to strong technology monopoly and high profit margin.
② Product quality is stable and the purity of original product is high. Physical and chemical indexes should not only be guaranteed, but also usability should be paid more attention to after compounding. These tests have a long period and complex equipment, and many test items involve human safety and environmental impact. Therefore, there are many regulations and standards for the management of fine chemical products, such as Pharmacopoeia (see “Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China”, “British Pharmacopoeia”), “Regulation for Pesticide Management”, etc. For products that do not conform to the regulations, the state will order them to improve to reach the specified targets or prohibit production.
③ Fine chemical production process is different from general chemical production. Whole process of its production includes not only chemical synthesis (or separation and extraction from natural substances), but also formulation processing and commercialization. Among them, chemical synthesis process starts from basic chemical raw materials, making intermediates, then making medicine, dyes, pesticides, organic pigments, surfactants, spices and other fine chemicals. Process of formulation processing and commercialization is the process of formulation and commodity for various products, and their processing technology belongs to similar operation.
④ Most of them are produced in batch and small batch. Although the production process is long, the scale is small and the investment cost of unit equipment is low. Therefore, precise engineering technology is needed.
⑤ Products are of strong commodity nature and fierce competition among users. Research and production organizations should have comprehensive application technology and provide technical services for users.
Production and pollution links of industry
Front-end process of chemical plant
Process route for back-end process